From the Highest Peaks of Midgaard Where the Sons of Men Do Hold, To the Killing Chill of Niflheim The Land of Ice and Cold. To the Furnace Blast of Muspelheim Where Flame Leaps Far and Nigh, Nothing Born of Yggdrasil Escapes the Ravens Eye.
Down To the Depths of Svartalfheim Where Stone and Anvil Call, Unto High Liossalfheim Where Dark Ne’er Comes at All. High Up Over Jotunheim Where Giants Hold Their Court, All the Deeds of Every Land The Ravens Sift and Sort.
To the Heights of Vanaheim Where Elder Gods do Roam, Unto the Deepest Reach of Hel Where Spirits Make Their Home. And Last Up Into Asgaards Halls Where They May Find Their Havens, For It Is Known, Though All Men Fall, The Gods Do Keep the Ravens.
(A poem written by ThorinRuriksson of Reddit to help you learn the nine realms. Original Post. ThorinRuriksson…
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Baumgartner’s space jump has already been recreated in Lego.
Settlement and Field Structures in continental North-West Europe from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries
By Adriaan Verhulst
Medieval Settlement Research Group, Vol.13 (1998)
Introduction: Since the eighties and increasingly during the nineties there has been a renewed interest on the continent in medieval rural settlement, mainly among archaeologists and geographers. This overview of research in this field in continental north-west Europe during recent decades is intended to explain this development.
From the middle of the fifties English scholars pioneered medieval field archaeology. They founded the Deserted Medieval Villages Research Group, later changed to Medieval Village Research Group and now since 1985 the Medieval Settlement Research Group. Their work, set up by Maurice Beresford and John Hurst, provoked great interest on the continent.
Although the German geographical tradition in the field of “Settlement History” (Siedlungsgeschichte) with illustrious names like Gradmann, Martiny, Niemeier, Muller-Wille and Mortensen. was continued after the war by Anneliese Krenzlin, Martin Born and Hans-Jurgen Nitz, a decisive step to a renewal of the subject on the English model were the conferences organised during the seventies by the famous archaeologist Herbert Jankuhn under the auspices of the Gottingen Academy. Several volumes on the early medieval village and on early medieval fields resulted from these meetings between archaeologists, historians, geographers and linguists. The importance of the yearbook Siedlungsforschung. Archdologie-Geschichte-Geographie, edited since 1983 by Klaus Fehn, testifies to the liveliness of research on rural settlements in central and continental north-west Europe.
Topic: More on Neanderthal
The Lozoya River Valley, in the Madrid mountain range of Guadarrama, could easily be called “Neanderthal Valley,” says the paleontologist Juan Luis Arsuaga.
“It is protected by two strings of mountains, it is rich in fauna, it is a privileged spot from an environmental viewpoint, and it is ideal for the Neanderthal, given that it provided the with good hunting grounds.”
This is not just a hypothesis: scientists working on site in Pinilla del Valle, near the reservoir, have already found nine Neanderthal teeth, remains of bonfires and thousands of animal fossils, including some from enormous aurochs (the ancestor of cattle, each the length of two bulls), rhinoceros and fallow deer.
The Neanderthal is a human species that is well known and unknown at the same time. It is well known because numerous vestiges have been found from the time when they lived in Europe, between…
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This will all end in tears…
The medical humanities have contributed greatly to research that addresses – conceptually, historically and empirically – whose perspective(s) are (and should be) privileged when judging the contours of illness and health. One research arena in which these questions currently have particular salience and urgency is that of research on ‘recovery’ in mental health.
The October 2012 issue of the open access journal World Psychiatry (the official journal of the World Psychiatric Association) features a forum on “Consumer Models of Recovery: Issues and Perspectives”. In the target article “Issues and developments on [sic] the consumer recovery construct” Alan Bellack and Amy Drapalski argue that while the ‘consumer recovery model has had increasing influence on mental health practices in the United States, Western Europe, and several other countries’, the model’s adoption has derived from ‘political decisions rather than empirical evidence of [its] validity … or its value for treatment services’…
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Reconstruction of a Neanderthal in The Neanderthal Museum, Germany. Source Wikipedia.
Image credit Ökologi
Writing in TG Daily, Emma Woollacott reports that the examination of food particles trapped in the teeth of Neanderthal remains have –
…revealed the human ancestor Australopithecus sediba ate bark – analysis of microscopic bits of food trapped between the teeth – they’ve established that Neanderthals cooked plants, including bitter-tasting ones that have medicinal properties. Until recently, Neanderthals, who disappeared between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago, were thought to be predominantly meat-eaters.
Researchers from Spain, the UK and Australia combined pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry with morphological analysis of plant microfossils to identify material trapped in dental calculus – calcified dental plaque – from five Neanderthals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón.
Quanyu Wang, scientist, British Museum
I am a scientist specialising in metalworking technology, particularly in relation to non-precious metals such as iron and copper-alloys. The scientific examination and analysis of the Chiseldon Iron-Age cauldrons is a key aspect of the investigative process as a whole and is crucial in supporting our understanding of them.
For the Chiseldon cauldrons I have been examining the microstructure of the metal under very high magnification in order to see its composition, deduce how it was worked and explore manufacturing techniques. Some of the questions I will be trying to answer include: ‘How were the cauldrons made?’, ‘Were different components from an individual vessel made in the same workshop?’, ‘Were the same parts, such as the iron handles for different vessels, made from the same metal stocks’ and, perhaps the most important question of all; ‘Were the cauldrons made especially for burial or collected together…
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It was in the days of King Harold Fairhair that a man brought his ship to Iceland into Breiðdal, his name being Hallfreðr. Breiðdal is a countryside down below that of Fljótsdalr. On board his ship was his wife and son, who was hight Hrafnkell, who was then fifteen winters old, a hopeful and goodly man.
Hallfreðr set up household. In the course of the winter there died a servant-maid of foreign kin, whose name was Arnthrúðr; hence the name of the place Arnthruðr-staðir. In the spring Hallfreðr moved his house northward over the heath, and set up a home at a place called Geitdalr. One night he dreamt that there came a man to him, and said : “There liest thou, Hallfreðr, and rather unwarily; flit thy house away west across the Lagarfljót, for there all thy good luck awaits thee.” Thereupon he awoke and flitted his belongings down the valley, across Rangá, into the Tongue to a spot, which has since been called Hallfreðr-staðir, and there he dwelt into a good old age.
In breaking up from Geitdalr he had left a goat and a buck behind, and the same day that Hallfreðr left, an earthslip struck the house, and there these two creatures were lost. Hence the name Geitdalr, which this place has borne ever since.